Pangaea2 is the first sample Independency on

Pangaea was the super-continent in earths earlier history, where all landmasses were joined together. As the Independency Pangaea2 is also open to people from all continents, without concern for man made, virtual borders, the name seemed fitting.

To find out more about the original Pangaea click here.



Pangaea2 Summary

What Data Comments
Independency Pangaea2 Official WebSite (t.b.d.)
Population  1
Area 1.480 m²
Constitution see below Identical to
Tax System Simple Service Tax  Video in German / English t.b.d.



Constitution of Pangaea2 (download Pangaea2-Constitution as PDF)

Constitution of the Independency PANGAEA2 ( [excerpt]

Version 1 | 2015-03-29

Pangaea2 is an Independency according to

Independency ( says): an independency is an organized community of individuals, regulated by a constitution. The joint goal of the individuals in an Independency is, to govern themselves and source services jointly as a community.

As such they remain independent from current territorial monopolist political entities such as territorial nations or states, and also from other independencies.


freedomPrinciple 1: Freedom

Every individual (and group of individuals) has the right to freedom (as much as possible)

This individual freedom ends, where the next individuals freedoms begin



Principle 2: Equality

Every individual (and group of individuals) has equal rights





Constitutional amendments are used to further specify and explain the constitutional principles and their practical ramifications in more detail.


Amendment 1: detailed interpretation of the principles

A1.1 The combination of freedom AND equality implies that individual freedoms are also equal

A1.2 Equality / equal rights include the right to the resources of our joint eco-system and the biosphere of planet earth; each human being born has the right to a fair (equal) share of the natural resources available on planet earth.

A1.3    Equality includes all generations (existing and future). All generations have equal rights to the resources of our joint eco-system / the biosphere of planet earth (= sustainability).


This principle is established via the “generation-line” system. Each (biologically alive) individual is part of a group called a generation-line. (A generation-line typically consists of all direct descendants of one progenitor.)

For more details on the generation line principle, please refer to the PDF version: (download Pangaea2-Constitution as PDF)

Amendment 2: form of organization

Politics is the process of jointly making decisions.

Pangaea2 constitutes itself based on this document as its constitution and the described political process.


A2.0  Pangaea2 is an open Independency. Every consenting adult (>=16 years of age) can join and apply for citizenship. The citizens of Pangaea2 reserve the right, to deny citizenship to applicants, if the respective applicants do not accept this constitution or violate its principles.


A2.1 Pangaea2 (as follows conclusively from the constitutional principles of freedom and equality) is organized as a direct | liquid democracy


A2.1.1    Each citizen between the age of 16 and ∞ has a right to personally vote on all issues / joint decisions of the independency

A2.1.2    Each citizen between the age of 16 and ∞ has a right to delegate his/her vote to any other citizen (delegate), who is willing to accept this delegation. Delegation can be made generally (for all polls), per topic, or per individual poll, and they can be limited in time or number of polls.

A delegation can be withdrawn at any time. Delegates can un-accept delegations at any time.

Each individual delegation can be assigned to one individual fellow citizen (e.g. a trustworthy

expert for the respective topic/poll)



Topic(s): a thematic or structural organization of individual issues into groups, such as “education”, “health”, “finance”, “constitutional principles”, etc.; the list of available topics is decided democratically by the citizens


A2.2 Pangaea2 features 3 levels of jointly made decisions, resulting in the rules and regulations of the Independency

Level Name Description Support Acceptance
1 Constitution A constitution is a set of fundamental principles according to which an Independency, state or other organization is governed.These principles can be detailed/explained by amendments, describing the practical implication of this principles and the form of organization of the Independency.The constitutional principles and amendments together make up, i.e. constitute, the Independency.The Constitution is binding and strongly enforced. 10% 75%
2 Law The sum of all law is a system of rules that are enforced through social institutions. They are intended to govern behaviour.Laws are binding and strongly enforced. 5% >50%
3 Guideline Guidelines are social conventions to facilitate peaceful and constructive social interactions within the Independency or with members of other organized communities.Guidelines are suggestions, which citizens should follow, but they are not formally enforced.Violation can be penalized by social actions of fellow citizens in response to the violation (changed behaviour towards the individual(s), who violated the guideline). 1% >50%



Support: percentage of citizens with the right to vote, who must directly or via a chosen delegate support a motion (new rule suggested for poll), before it must be decided via a poll

Acceptance: percentage of citizens with the right to vote, who must directly or via a chosen delegate accept a motion (new rule suggested for poll), before it will become part of the constitution / laws / guidelines


A2.3 Pangaea2 is a true democracy (rule of the people). The constitution, all laws and guidelines, must therefore conform to following conditions, which are mandatorily polled when democratically making a decision by voting.

The first goal of these mandatory confirmations for each new rule is, to ensure that the laws are comprehensible for all citizens to enable them to participate in the political process (and avoid a minority of law-experts ruling the majority by “owning” the rules).

The second goal is to keep the rules according to which this community is organized as simple and as few as possible (as many, as necessary, as few as possible). This will keep the political process and the legislation/execution of the joint rules as lean as possible, and keep the administration cost as low as possible.

Mandatory condition for constitution (principles, amendments), laws, and guidelines Acceptance
Comprehensive: I understand the meaning and implication of the rule/principle >75%
Unambiguous: The rule/principle is unambiguous (not open to more than one interpretation) >75%
Conform: the principle/amendment/law/guideline is in conformity with all existing principles/amendments/laws/guidelines (does not contradict or introduce ambiguity) >75%
Necessary: the principle/amendment/law/guideline is not covered by existing rules and is necessary to ensure a peaceful and constructive interaction of individuals in the Independency >75%
Accepted: I agree to / accept the constitutional principle/amendment or law or guideline. See A2.2



Acceptance: percentage of citizens with the right to vote, who must directly or via a chosen delegate consent



A2.4 Starting conditions for political process: political processes have a known scaling effect – crowd-intelligence decisions on complex issues are typically better than expert decisions, when more than 15.000 people are involved.

Therefore, the democratic process to create new / change existing constitutional principles/amendments, laws, and/or guidelines for Pangaea2 will start, as soon as a critical mass of 15.000 citizens is reached. Until this number is reached, this constitution is the primary and only law-base for Pangae2 (there are no additional laws or guidelines).

The first act of an established democratic process in the Independency Pangaea2, when it reaches 15.000 citizens, will therefore be, to remove this paragraph from the constitution to formally start the Independency as a democratic community of free and equal citizens.





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